Exploring What’s New in latest Java: A Comprehensive Overview

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Java, renowned as one of the leading programming languages, continuously evolves with regular updates and enhancements to align with the latest development trends and meet the changing demands of the industry. In this blog post, we will dive into the latest Java features and improvements unveiled in the new versions, emphasizing their importance and demonstrating their application through code examples. From the modular system introduced in Java 9 to pattern matching for instanceof in Java 16, we’ll explore the newest advancements in Java and how these developments enable developers to craft code that’s more efficient, expressive, and easier to maintain. Regardless of whether you are an experienced Java developer or embarking on your programming journey, grasping these latest java features will arm you with the insights to fully harness the capabilities of the new version of the Java programming language.

Exploring What’s New in latest Java

Now, let’s dive deeper into the latest features and enhancements introduced in Java and understand how they can benefit developers in their daily programming tasks.

Java 9: Module System (Jigsaw)

One of the most significant changes introduced in Java 9 is the Module System, also known as Project Jigsaw. Modules allow developers to encapsulate code and manage dependencies more effectively, enhancing modularity and scalability in large applications.

// Example of module declaration
module com.example.myapp {
    requires java.base;
    requires java.sql;
    exports com.example.myapp.util;

The module declaration defines a module named com.example.myapp, which depends on java.base and java.sql modules. It also exports the com.example.myapp.util package for other modules to use.

Java 10: Local Variable Type Inference

Java 10 introduced the var keyword, enabling local variable type inference. With var, the compiler infers the variable type based on the assigned value, reducing verbosity without sacrificing type safety.

// Example of local variable type inference
var list = new ArrayList<String>();

Here, the variable list is inferred to be of type ArrayList<String> based on the assigned value, “Java”.

Java 11: HTTP Client (Standard)

Java 11 comes with a new HTTP client API in the java.net.http package. This API simplifies HTTP communication and supports both synchronous and asynchronous operations.

// Example of using the HTTP client
HttpClient client = HttpClient.newHttpClient();
HttpRequest request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
HttpResponse<String> response = client.send(request, HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.ofString());

In this example, we create an instance of HttpClient and use it to send an HTTP GET request to a specified URI. We then receive the response as a String.

Java 12: Switch Expressions (Preview Feature)

Java 12 introduced switch expressions, a simplified and more concise form of switch statements. Switch expressions can return a value, making them more versatile than traditional switch statements.

// Example of switch expression
int day = 3;
String dayType = switch (day) {
    case 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 -> "Weekday";
    case 6, 7 -> "Weekend";
    default -> throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid day: " + day);

Here, we use a switch expression to determine the type of day based on the day number. The result is stored in the dayType variable.

Java 13: Text Blocks (Preview Feature)

Java 13 introduced text blocks, providing a more readable and maintainable way to write multiline strings. Text blocks simplify string formatting and escaping, especially for HTML, SQL, and JSON content.

// Example of text block
String html = """
            <p>Hello, World!</p>

Text blocks allow us to write multiline strings without the need for escape characters or concatenation.

Java 14: Records (Preview Feature)

Java 14 introduced records, a new type of class primarily used to store immutable data. Records provide a concise syntax for declaring classes with immutable properties, reducing boilerplate code.

// Example of a record
record Point(int x, int y) {}
Point p = new Point(10, 20);

Here, we define a record named Point with two properties, x and y. We then create an instance of Point and access its x property.

Java 15: Sealed Classes (Preview Feature)

Java 15 introduced sealed classes and interfaces, enabling developers to restrict which classes can extend or implement them. Sealed classes promote better design and enhance code maintainability by explicitly specifying class hierarchies.

// Example of a sealed class
public sealed class Shape permits Circle, Rectangle, Triangle {}

Here, we define a sealed class named Shape that permits only Circle, Rectangle, and Triangle classes to extend it.

Java 16: Pattern Matching for instanceof (Preview Feature)

Java 16 introduced pattern matching for the instanceof operator, allowing developers to perform type checks and type casts in a more concise and expressive manner.

// Example of pattern matching for instanceof
Object obj = "Java";
if (obj instanceof String s) {

In this example, we use pattern matching to check if obj is an instance of String. If it is, we cast it to a String variable named s and print its uppercase version.


Java continues to evolve and adapt to the changing landscape of software development. The latest features introduced in recent versions of Java aim to enhance developer productivity, improve code readability, and promote better design practices. By staying up-to-date with these advancements and incorporating them into your projects, you can write more robust and maintainable Java code. Keep exploring and experimenting with these new features to unlock the full potential of the Java programming language. Happy coding!